The choice platforms each contained two food wells 2. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Metformin impairs spatial memory and visual acuity in old male mice. Diet Prior to diet administration, rats were randomly assigned to either a high-fat, low-carbohydrate KD Furthermore, the expression of apolipoprotein E allele 4 APOE4 is a common risk factor for AD and for type 2 diabetes suggesting a common pathophysiological background [ 6 ]. On the first day of testing, objects were only partially covering the food reward for the first four trails per object 8 trials total to encourage learning. Aging 26 Suppl. Thus, restoring function in one area may exacerbate decline in another, failing to restore behavioral output. Note the right arm was enclosed on both sides by white walls gray for depiction purposes only and the left arm was open on both sides. Download PDF.
Importantly, these alterations are not uniform across the brain. Because higher cognitive functions require large—scale interactions across prefrontal cortical and hippocampal networks, selectively targeting an alteration within one region may not broadly restore function to improve cognition. One mechanism for decline that the PFC and HPC share, however, is a reduced ability to utilize glucose for energy metabolism.
Age-associated alterations of hippocampal place cells are subregion specific. The researchers say the biggest hurdle for researchers was finding people willing to make drastic changes to their eating habits and partners willing to enforce the diets. Hernandez, 1 Caesar M. For example, when a person is on a ketogenic diet, consisting of lots of fat and very few sugars and starches, the brain and body use ketones as an energy source instead of carbs. While transporter protein expression alone could certainly affect cognitive outcomes, it is likely that these changes, along with the ability to bypass glucose metabolism deficits, work in conjunction with several other physiological changes that results from the long-term consumption of a KD. In support of the notion that sleep plays an important role in epilepsy, polysomnographic studies available have shown alterations in sleep structure in individuals with epilepsy. A translational review.
Metrics details. Ketogenic diets KDs include a high amount of fat, low carbohydrate and medium-chain triglyceride MCT intake. KDs lead to the production of ketone bodies to fuel the brain, in the absence of glucose. These nutritional interventions are validated treatments of pharmacoresistant epilepsy, consequently leading to a better intellectual development in epileptic children. The main objective of this review was to critically examine the evidence regarding KD or MCT intake effects both in AD and ageing animal models and in humans. Overall, 11 animal and 11 human studies were included in the present review. In preclinical studies, this review revealed an improvement of cognition and motor function in AD mouse model and ageing animals. However, the KD and ketone supplementation were also associated with significant weight loss. In human studies, most of the published articles showed a significant improvement of cognitive outcomes global cognition, memory and executive functions with ketone supplementation or KD, regardless of the severity of cognitive impairments previously detected. Both interventions seemed acceptable and efficient to achieve ketosis. The need for efficient disease-modifying strategies suggests to pursue further KD interventional studies to assess the efficacy, the adherence to this diet and the potential adverse effects of these nutritional approaches.